Gida Littattafan Tsorofiction Watan Girman kai na Firgici: 'Dracula' & Rashin Amincewa da Sarautar Bram Stoker

Watan Girman kai na Firgici: 'Dracula' & Rashin Amincewa da Sarautar Bram Stoker

by Waylon Jordan
Bram Stoker Dracula

Akwai lokuta a lokacin Watan Girman kai a iHorror cewa na san mutane za su watsar da ni gaba ɗaya. Sannan akwai wasu lokuta da zanyi wanka da kyankyasar kwanya sannan in shirya shiri na baya. Kamar yadda na buga taken wannan labarin game da Dracula–Ayan litattafan da nafi so a kowane lokaci –haka, bari kawai muce wahayin Kurt Russell da Billy Baldwin suna rawa a kaina.

Don haka, a nan ke…

A cikin kusan shekaru 125 tun Dracula An fara buga shi, mun koyi abubuwa da yawa game da kanmu da kuma game da mutumin da ya rubuta mafi shahararren littafin vampire na kowane lokaci, kuma gaskiyar magana ita ce, Bram Stoker mutum ne da ya yi amfani da rayuwar sa ta manya da yawan son wasu maza. .

Nunin A: Walt Whitman

Lokacin da yake ɗan shekara ashirin da huɗu, saurayi Stoker ya tsara abin da ke iya yiwuwa ɗayan mafi kyawun wasiƙu da ni kaina na taɓa karanta wa mawaƙin Ba'amurke Walt Whitman. Ya fara kamar haka:

Idan kai ne mutumin da na dauke ka ka zama zaka so samun wannan wasikar. Idan ba kai ba ban damu ba ko kana so ko ba ka so kuma kawai na nemi ka sanya shi a cikin wuta ba tare da karanta wani nisa ba. Amma na yi imani za ku so shi. Ba na tsammanin akwai wani mutum da ke raye, har ma ku da kuka fi son nuna wariyar ajin masu ƙananan tunani, waɗanda ba za su so samun wasiƙa daga ƙaramin saurayi, baƙo, a duk duniya - mutum rayuwa a cikin yanayi mai banbanci ga gaskiyar da kake rerawa da yadda kake wakar su.

Stoker zai ci gaba da magana game da burinsa na yin magana da Whitman kamar yadda mawaƙa suke yi, suna kiransa “maigida,” kuma yana cewa yana kishi kuma yana jin kamar yana jin tsoron reenancin da dattijo marubuci yake bi da rayuwarsa. Kuma a ƙarshe ya ƙare wannan hanya:

Abu ne mai daɗi ga ƙaƙƙarfan namiji mai ƙoshin lafiya da idanun mace da burin yaro ya ji cewa zai iya magana da mutumin da zai iya kasancewa idan yana son uba, da ɗan’uwa da mata ga ransa. Ba na tsammanin za ku yi dariya, Walt Whitman, ko raina, amma a duk abubuwan da suka faru ina yi muku godiya da irin kauna da tausayin da kuka ba ni tare da irina.

Ba tsalle-tsalle ba ne don yin la'akari da abin da Stoker ke nufi da "irina." Duk da haka, koda yake, bai iya kawo kansa ya faɗi kalmomin gaba ɗaya ba, yana rawa a kusa da su maimakon haka.

Kuna iya karanta cikakkun haruffa da ƙarin tattaunawa ta Binciki HERE. A zahiri, Whitman ya amsa ga saurayi, kuma ya fara wasiƙun da zai ci gaba shekaru da yawa ta wata hanyar ko wata. Game da Stoker, ya gaya wa abokinsa Horace Traubel:

Ya kasance ɗan ƙaramin yaro. [A] s don kona wasikar sama ko a'a - bai taba faruwa a gare ni in yi wani abu kwata-kwata ba: menene lahira da na damu ko yana da muhimmanci ko bai dace ba? ya kasance sabo ne, mai iska, dan Irish: wannan shine farashin da aka biya don shiga-kuma ya isa: an maraba dashi!

Shekaru daga baya, Stoker zai sami damar ganawa da gunkinsa sau da yawa. Game da Whitman, ya rubuta:

Na same shi duk abin da na taɓa mafarki, ko kuma fata a gare shi: mai girman kai, mai faɗi-gani, mai jurewa har zuwa ƙarshe; juyayi cikin jiki; fahimta tare da fahimtar da ta fi ta ɗan adam.

Nunin B: Sir Henry Irving

Shigar da babban tasiri na biyu a rayuwar Stoker.

A cikin 1878, aka ɗauki Stoker a matsayin kamfani da manajan kasuwanci na gidan wasan kwaikwayon na Lyceum wanda mallakar Ireland yake da shi – kuma wasu za su ce shahararren ɗan wasan duniya, Sir Henry Irving. Mai ƙarfin hali, mafi girma fiye da rayuwar mutum wanda ya buƙaci hankalin waɗanda ke kewaye da shi, bai zama lokaci ba kafin shi ma, ya ɗauki matsayi mai girma a rayuwar Stoker. Ya gabatar da Stoker cikin zamantakewar London, kuma ya sanya shi a cikin wani wuri don saduwa da abokan marubuta kamar Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

Kodayake akwai rashin tabbas game da inda marubucin ya ɗauki wahayi game da tarihin Dracula – Vlad Tepes ko Irish vampire labari Abhartach – kusan an yarda da shi a duniya cewa marubucin ya danganta yanayin halayen mutumin ne a kan Irving da kuma wasu daga cikin mutumin. karin… mai iko… halin mutum mai kyau.

A cikin wata takarda ta 2002 don Nazarin Tarihin Tarihi na Amurka mai taken "" Buffalo Bill Ya Haɗu da Dracula: William F. Cody, Bram Stoker, da kuma Iyakokin Rikicin Raunin, " masanin tarihi Louis Warren ya rubuta:

Yawancin kwatancen Stoker na Irving sun yi daidai da yadda ya fassara ƙagaggen ƙididdigar cewa mutanen zamanin sun yi sharhi game da kamanni. … Amma Bram Stoker shima ya sanya tsoro da ƙiyayya da mai aikin sa ya sa shi, wanda ya sanya su ginshiƙan almararsa.

A cikin 1906, shekara guda bayan mutuwar Irving, Stoker ya wallafa kundin tarihin mutum biyu mai taken Tunanin mutum na Henry Irving.

Yana da mahimmanci a lura cewa, kodayake gidan wasan kwaikwayon ya yi masa aiki na kimanin shekaru 27, kawai ya fara yin rubutu don farawa Dracula kusan 1890 ko makamancin haka. Kuma zai zama mutum na uku, wanda a ƙarshe ya zuga marubucin ya sanya alkalami zuwa takarda don fara labarin almara.

Nunin C: Oscar Wilde

Abin sha'awa shine, a wannan shekarar da Stoker ya fara aiki a Irving a gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Lyceum, ya kuma auri Florence Balcombe, mashahurin kyakkyawa kuma mace da aka alaƙanta ta da Oscar Wilde.

Stoker ya san Wilde tun shekarunsu na jami'a, har ma ya ba ɗan'uwansa ɗan ƙasar Ireland shawarar zama memba a cikin Phiungiyar Falsafa ta ma'aikata. A hakikanin gaskiya, mutanen biyu suna da abota mai dorewa, mai yuwuwa fiye da haka, watakila shekaru XNUMX, kuma sararin da ke tsakaninsu ya fara girma ne kawai bayan An kama Wilde a ƙarƙashin Dokokin Sodomy na ranar.

A cikin labarinta "'Wani sha'awar Wilde ya kama ni': Tarihin Homoerotic na Dracula," Talia Schaffer yana da wannan ya ce:

Share Stoker da hankali game da sunan Wilde daga duk rubutun da aka buga (kuma ba a buga shi ba) yana ba wa mai karatu tunanin cewa Stoker ya jahilci kasancewar Wilde. Babu wani abu da zai iya ci gaba da gaskiya can Ba ​​za a iya karantar da Stoker ba tare da wahala mai yawa ba; suna amfani da lambar sananniya wacce, wataƙila, an tsara ta don karyewa. A cikin rubutattun rubutu game da Wilde, Stoker ya rufe gibin da ya kamata a bayyana sunan Wilde tare da kalmomi kamar “degeneracy,” “reticence,” “hankali,” da kuma ambaton kama 'yan sanda da marubuta. Dracula yayi bincike game da tsoro da damuwar Stoker a matsayin mutum mai kusanci da ɗan luwaɗi yayin shari'ar Oscar Wilde. – Schaffer, Talia. “” Sha'awar Wilde ta Meauke Ni ”: Tarihin Homoerotic na Dracula.” ELH 61, babu. 2 (1994): 381-425. An shiga Yuni 9, 2021.

A hakikanin gaskiya, cikin wata guda aka kama Wilde ne da gaske Stoker ya fara rubutu Dracula. Wannan dangantakar abune mai matukar birgewa ga masana da yawa waɗanda suka tsunduma cikin tarihin marubutan biyu da ayyukan da suka buga.

A gefe guda, kuna da Wilde, wanda ya rubuta labari game da wanda ba ya mutuwa wanda ya yi rayuwarsa a sarari, sakamakonsa ya zama la'ananne, kuma ya shiga cikin kowane irin sha'awar da zai iya. Ya kasance babban zakara-na-tafiya wanda ya zana kowane ido gare shi kuma ya rungume shi.

A wani bangaren, kuna da Stoker, wanda shi ma ya rubuta wani labari game da mara mutuwa. Koyaya, rashin tilasta wajan Stoker ya kasance cikin wanzuwar dare, ɓoye a cikin inuwa, wani ɗan kwayar cutar da ke ciyar da wasu kuma a ƙarshe an “kashe shi da gaskiya” saboda hakan.

Babu wani tsalle ko tsalle da zurfin tunani kwata-kwata ganin wadannan halittu guda biyu a matsayin wakilcin karancin marubutan su. An kama Wilde, an saka shi a kurkuku, kuma daga ƙarshe an kore shi saboda jima'i. Stoker ya kasance cikin tsayayye –idan galibi tsarkakakke ne-wanda zai ci gaba da jayayya cewa “masu yin lalata da mata” ya kamata a kore su daga gabar Biritaniya kamar yawancin politiciansan siyasan da ke kusa a yau waɗanda ke yin adawa da ƙungiyar LBGTQ +, sai kawai a kama su tare da su wando a lokacin da suke tunanin babu wanda yake nema.

Har ila yau, abin fadakarwa ne a lura cewa duka Wilde da Stoker sun mutu ne saboda rikice-rikice daga cutar sankara, isasshen STD a cikin Victorian London wanda ko ta yaya zai ji daɗin kallon dangantakar su da juna, amma ba a nan ko a can ba.

A cikin littafinsa, Wani abu a cikin Jinin: Labarin da ba'a faɗi ba na Bram Stoker, Mutumin da ya Rubuta Dracula, David J. Skal yayi jayayya cewa ana iya samun abun kallo na Wilde a duk shafukan Dracula, da yawa kamar wasan kallo na Wilde wanda yake rataye akan rayuwar Stoker. Wilde shine inuwar Stoker kai. Shi ne mai ba da labarinsa wanda ya yi ƙoƙarin yin abin da mutumin da kansa ba zai iya ba ko ba zai iya ba.

Bram Stoker's Dracula

Dracula Farkon Bram Stoker

Gwagwarmayar cikin gida ta Stoker tana kan kowane shafi na Dracula. Attemptoƙarinsa na sasanta sha'awa da ainihi da jin rashin tabbas kuma haka ne, wani lokacin ƙyamar kansa da aka ɗora a kansa kuma al'ummomin da ke sa haramtacciyar doka ta sanya doka a cikin kowane sassa.

Ba dole ba ne mutum ya ba littafin karantawa domin nemo shi. Akwai lokuta da yawa a cikin labarin inda queepness, otherness, da kuma misãli tsalle daga shafin.

Yi la'akari da yankin vampire akan Harker lokacin da Matan aure suka tunkareshi. Yana lulluɓe ɗan adam da jikin sa, yana mai da'awar shi. Ko kuma wataƙila dangantakar da ke tsakanin Dracula da Renfield wacce ke ganin mahaukaciyar mahaukaciyar tare da sha'awar yi masa hidima?

Aikace-aikacen ciyar da vampiric, fitar da jinin rai ta hanyar cizo ya ɗauki matsayin shigar jima'i ta yadda har a farkon fim ɗin da aka sauya game da littafin, an umarci daraktoci da marubuta cewa Countidayar kawai zata iya cizon mata don cire duk shawarar luwadi ko luwadi.

A zahiri, a lokacin zamanin Hays Code, hanyar da kawai zasu iya bi tare da kowane irin abu shine saboda Dracula shine maƙaryaci kuma yana da ƙarancin mutuwa. Koda hakan ma da kyar za'a iya sanya shi kuma ayi shawara, amma ba'a taɓa nunawa ba.

Wannan, hakika, ya haifar da tsarawar dukkanin masu kallon fim waɗanda ba su taɓa karanta asalin asalin asalin ba kuma wataƙila ba su taɓa ganin ƙarancin yanayi na Dracula. Su ne mutanen da ke nunawa a cikin sassan maganganu lokacin da aka buga labarai kamar wannan kuma suna ƙin marubutan, suna cewa mun tsara wannan abun, kuma kawai muna ƙoƙarin tilasta LGBTQ + jigogin inda basa wanzu.

A zahirin gaskiya, wannan shine dalilin da yasa ban ambaci fina-finan ba sai yanzu. Wannan tattaunawar tana da tushe cikin asalin labari kuma ga mutumin da ya kirkira shi: mutumin da kusan yake ɗan luwaɗi kuma mai yiwuwa ɗan luwaɗi ne, marubucin da ya yi gwagwarmaya da ainihi da sha'awar wanda ya ƙirƙiri labarin da ba ya mutuwa kamar yadda yake, kuma a mutum ne wanda aka bayyana shi a cikin rayuwarsa ta sauran maza a rayuwarsa a cikin shekaru talatin da suka gabata ko makamancin haka.

Kammalawa Na Karshe

Akwai shakku mutane da suka daina karanta wannan labarin bayan sakin layi na farko ko biyu – wasu ma basu sanya shi sama da taken ba. Ga wadanda suka dage, da farko dai na ce na gode. Na biyu ina tambayar ku da kuyi la'akari da halayen ku ga wannan bayanin kafin ku ba da amsa.

Yi tunani kafin ku yi ihu, "Wanene ya damu?" Tabbas, ƙila ba ku damu ba. Tabbas, wannan bayanin bazai iya nuna muku komai ba kwata-kwata. Yaya ƙarfin zuciyar ku don yin tunanin wannan yana nufin cewa bayanin ba shi da amfani ga kowa a duniya, kuma.

Kasancewa cikin al'ummar da ke gefe sanannen yana nufin cewa ko dai an lalata tarihinmu ko kuma an hana mu. Mutanen da ba su da tarihi da wuya su zama kamar mutane kwata-kwata. Rashin saninmu ne ke sarrafa mu, kuma waɗanda ba sa cikin al'umma suna iya ɗauka da sauƙi cewa mu wani sabon ɓata ne a cikin yanayin da aka haifa a cikin shekarun 1970s.

Don haka, yana iya zama ba komai a gare ku ba, amma tabbas yana da ma'ana ga membobin ƙungiyar LGBTQ + waɗanda suma masoya ne masu ban tsoro su san cewa ɗayan maɗaukakiyar tarihin ban tsoro kowane lokaci an rubuta shi daga wani mutum wanda ya raba gwagwarmaya da gwagwarmaya. tare da ainihin kansa a cikin hanyar da yawancinmu muke da shi.

Wannan yana da fa'ida a cikin 2021, kuma wannan shine tattaunawar Watan Girman kai na Jin tsoro wanda zai ci gaba da haɓaka.

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